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Full text of "A narrative of life and travels in Mexico and British Honduras"

Duval, B. R 






A narrative 


of life and 


travels in 


Mexico 


and 


British Honduras. 





THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 

AT CHAPEL HILL 




ENDOWED BY THE 

DIALECTIC AND PHILANTHROPIC 

SOCIETIES 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



i fe * Jgff 



I 00016851220 



LIFE AND TRAVELS 



ih 




-MEXICO IM BB1T1SH HOfsDOR&S. 

EVi^REV, B. R. DUVAL, 
Late cftlie Virginia Antiu&t Conference. 

Present Addre ss — Dispatch, New Keet County^ V». 

FI1LV5 



THIRD. EDITION. 



;*d 



; iVn 



,.- BOSTON: 
W. F. BROWN & CO., Printers, 
ai8 Franklin Street, H . 

.-. - .'18 8.!.' -\''M, 



•-: " " -. ■ ■*''.' • ■■:.. 1 




DEPARTMENT of MIDDLE AMERICAN RESEARCH 

TTIHE TfULANE UNOVERSDTYof LOUOSDANA 
NEW OHJQ.IEANS 



\ NARRATIVE 



-\ 



LI FE. AN\D TRAVELS 



in 



MEXICO AND BRITISH HONDURAS. 

BY REV. E. R. D^UVAL, 
Late of the Virginia Annual Conference. 

Present Address— Dispatch, New Kent County, Vs. 

THIRD EDITION. 



BOSTON: 
W. F. Bro vf N & Company, Printer s, 

Xo. :iS Frar.klm Stre-t. 




PREFACE. 



It has frequently been suggested to me that 
I .ought to write an account of my trip to 
the countries from which I have just returned, 
as a means of making something for the 
support of my family, as well as affording 
useful information concerning those beautiful 
lands ; and I now undertake to comply with 
those suggestions. 

But, as I can spare very little time, I shall 
simply aim to relate such things as I would 
tell in a social circle, and in the same style ; 
hoping that some good may be done, as the 
readers shall see the great religious privileges 
they enjoy, compared with the people of 




Mexico, and their consequent obligations to 
God for a free Bible in our native tongue. 

I am sorry that my want of means causes 
the price to be higher than it otherwise would 

be. 

B. R. DUVAL. 
Baltimore, April, 1879. 




A NARRATIVE 

OP 

LIFE AND TRAVELS 

MEXICO AND BRITISH HONDURAS. 



On the first of December, 1864, 1 was living about 
twenty miles south of Petersburg, Virginia, near 
Stony Creek Depot, sawing lumber and grinding 
corn, at a large steam mill ; but before night nearly 
everything I had was stolen, or burned up, and in 
a few hours I was reduced from a comfortable inde- 
pendence to real destitution. But I did not repine, 
but exerted myself to the utmost, to support my 
family and pay my debts ; and soon after the Sur- 
render, I went to work and fixed up the saw mill, 
and hoped that at current rates, I might yet be able 
to saw lumber enough to pay out. Bat lumber soon 
iell to a price. not sufficient to pay expenses; and 
as soon as I saw this, I went to a most honorable 
lawyer, and asked him to make a deed of the 
most equitable character, and sell me. out* for the 



benefit of my creditors. This was done, and we 
received only tho allowance made by law to in- 
solvent debtors. 

This was in May, 1866, and I was at a loss to 
know what to do. I could hear of no place where 
I could be supported, as a preacher, and my presid- 
ing elder told me that he knew not what to advise. 
as the times were such that he hardly knew how to 
advise himself. 

About this time, I had seen accounts in the 
papers of a settlement of Southern people in Mexico, 
under the auspices of such men as Captain Maury, 
General Price, and others of high character ; and 
these accounts stated that the whole number 
amounted to 5,000. From one of these publications 
I inferred that there was no Methodist ■ preacher 
among them, and 1 felt that there was the place for 
me, if I could get there; and it ..certainly seemed 
providential, when I found a friend who would 
advance me the necessary amount. My deliberate 
judgment, formed after much earnest prayer and 
the cheerful concurrence of my family, then was, 
that it was my duty to go to Mexico, and my hope 
was that I could support my family by working as 
a surveyor, for which I had prepared myself, and 
preach gratuitously to ray countrymen till I could 
organize* 




Accordingly, on the 22nd day of May, I started 
from Petersburg, with Mrs. Duval and three 
daughters and a son, for New York, to take passage 
by steamer Manhattan, for Yera Cruz, by Havana. 

The weather was very pleasant, and soon after 
getting in the Gulf stream, we saw a beautiful 
phenomenon, of which I had never heard. It was 
late in the afternoon, and the atmosphere was misty, 
and there appeared over a great part of the sky 
hundreds of rings just the size of the sun, very 
bright, and clearly defined. The sight was very novel 
and beautiful, and the surgeon of the ship told us 
that he had only seen it a few times, and then only 
in the Gulf stream. 

I was very much pleased to see the children so 
much interested in looking at the flying fish, the 
nautilus, the beautiful dolphins, with their colors 
changing like chameleon, the sea birds, and other 
things seen only on the ocean. 

There were several very agreeable travelers on 
board, and one of them was especially kind to us. 
He was a Spaniard, who had a large wholesale 
house in New York, and was going to Havana. 
Having heard opr history, he feared that we should 
have hard times in Mexico, and having seen that 
we had four children, corresponding Inage and eei 
with his four children, that he had j left in great 




8 

comfort at his country seat near New York, he showed 
our children the four buttons on his wristbands, 
which contained the likenesses of his children, and 
wept bitterly, saying, that he felt very much for us 
After awhile he told me that before he reached Ha 
vana he would give me aietter to a friend in Vers 
Cruz, which he knew would do me good. And indeed 
it did, for it contained an order for fifty dollars ii 
gold. As he was about to leave the ship, in Havana 
he shook hands with me and Mrs. Duval, most eor- 
dially, and kissed all the children, as affectionately 
as if they were his own, and was too much affected 
to speak. 

This kind-hearted man, and several others of his 
nation, have satisfied me that there are many who 
are not protestants whose actions look more like the 
Christianity of tne New Testament than the actions 
af many who boast of their evangelical faith. 

The time of our stay in the beautiful harbor 01 
Havana was too short to give us a chance to see 
much of this famous city, but the church in whicfc 
the remains of Columbus are deposited was pointed 
out to us, and awakened peculiar thoughts in oiu 
minds, What wonderful results have followed froir 
the enterprise of that great man ! And how differeni 
would nave been thehistory of theworld,if Colnmbui 
^^ <y^jS|e?ei land twenty degrees further north. 




We reached Vera Cruz at night, after a passage 
of four days from Havana, and anchored near the 
famous castle of San Juan D'Ulloa. Next mornino 
we entered the renowned city of Yera Cruz, a walled 
city of about 10,000 inhabitants. We were struck 
with the great politeness of the people of all classes, 
and especially of the officers of the custom house. 
Arrangements had been made by the government 
for the encouragement of persons coming into 
Mexico to settle, and our railroad fare was only 
one-fourth of the usual rates. 

The weather was extremely hot, and the yellow fe- 
ver had just commenced its annual work, and we hur- 
ried up the country next morning on the imperial rail- 
way. This great railway is the work of an English 
company, and is intended to connect the city ot 
Mexico with Yera Cruz, about two hundred and 
fifty miles off, but was only complete forty-seven 
miles to the first mountains, and has a very good 
grade, over ground at first low and swampy, then 
6andy and somewhat rocky, but all very barren. 

One coach was filled with Nubian soldiers, with 
their rifles, and a small brass howitzer on each side, 
fixed on a pivot at a window. These are very good 
soldiers, of warlike Mahometan tribes, of upper 
Egypt, and have been famous in Napoleon's wars 
in the Crimea, and in Lombardy. . They are verv 



10 

black, but very tall, and very different in appear- 
ance and character from the African race in the 
Southern States. They always attend the trains, 
especially to guard great quantities of silver, sent 
down from the city of Mexico to Yera Cruz, on the 
way to Europe. 

In about thru i hours, we reached the terminus 
ef the railroad, an! took an ambulance for Cordova, 
where we arrived before night. We were then 75 
miles from the cosst, and in full view of the peaks 
of Orizaba, which is 17,400 feet above the level of 
the sea, and is always covered with snow, to the 
amount of about 500 acres, cooling the air, very 
perceptibly, for fifteen miles around. 

On the Sunday after reaching Cordova. I called 
on the alcade, or mayor, and told him that I wished 
to- preach that afternoon at the Confederate hotel, 
according to invitation. He said, " Yery well, you 
have perfect liberty, according to the decree of the 
Emperor Maximilian." I told him that I was 
aware of that, but that I wished to pay my respects 
to him, and let him know my purpose. Accordingly 
I preached at the appointed hour, and kept it up 
during the three months that we lyrgd in Cordova. 
However, none but Americans attended, as the 
mass of the people are Roman Catholics. 




11 

At this time, there was great anxiety in Cordova, 
on account of about thirty Americans who had settled 
below General Price's colony,andhad been captured 
and carried off prisoners by a band of Liberals, as 
they were called, and who were opposed to Maxi- 
milian. The Liberals made heavy charges against 
the Americans, and, no doubt, some of the Ameri- 
cans were guilty ; but after a few weeks nearly all 
the Americans returned, having escaped or been 
released ; and then they tried to get Maximilian to 
indemnify them for all their losses ; and having 
failed in this, they commenced trying to get back 
to the States. 

'The approach of the rainy season, together with 
the uncertainty of Maximilian's continuance in 
power, caused the work on the railroad to be sus- 
pended, and I could find nothing to do, till I got a 
small wagon and a pair of mules for a piano which 
had been given one of our daughters, and which 
she wished to sell. 

"With this wa^on I hauled freight from the Depot 
to Cordova, 25 miles, and to Orizaba, 40 miles, and 
thus 1 made out for awhile, till the roads became so 
bad that the mules got stuck in the mud, so that 
I had to pay $i:50 to be hauled out of a mudhole, 
and after going about 100 yards, I Btuck again, 
a^d had to pay $2.00 more. I : w 



12 

It was then getting very sickly at Cordova, while 
it was very healthy in Orizaba, and we removed to 
Orizaba, which is a very beantiful place of about 
20,000 inhabitants. Here we were very pleasantly 
situated, the climate being delightful, and cool 
enough for a blanket every night. The market 
was very well supplied with meats and vegetables, 
at fair prices. The onions were the finest I have 
ever seen. Green corn could be had a great part 
of the year, and the quantity and variety of vege- 
tables were very great. But the fruits exceeded 
the vegetables. Oranges were very abundant and 
delicious, and I could get choice ones for 12£ cents 
a hundred. Pineapples also were very abundant, 
;nd at Cordova I bought choice ones for two cents 
dach, and sometimes one cent each, perfectly ripe 
and delicious. The fruits were too numerous for 
me to learn all their names. 

But at Orizaba, as at Cordova, I could find but 
little to do, and we had hard work to live. I got 
6ome hauling to do, but not enough to feed us. 
• One morning, Mrs. Duval told me that we had 
nothing to eat, and no money, and asked what we 
should do, I said that I did notinow, bat that 
there was time enough yet for theiravens to come 
before breal^at, and that I would do all I could 
and trust to pProvidence, as we had done so often 



13 

before. I then took my ease of surveying instru 
ments, and started out to find a Texan, who could 
talk Spanish better than I could, to get him to pawn 
the instruments for 6ome money. I went into the 
street, and turned up, and less than thirty steps, I 
met my Texan friend, and asked him if he could 
raise me some money on the case of instruments ; 
and he said "ves." I asked him when ; and he 
said "some time to-day." "But," said I, "we have 
no breakfast, and I need money noio. Can't you 
lend me a dollar ?" "Yes," says he, handing me 
out two half dollars. I turned immediately round 
and went home. On meeting my wife at the 
kitchen door, I said, "Agnes, the ravens have come 
already ;" and having called two of the children, I 
sent one for beef, and the other for bread, and in 
due time we had a good breakfast. 

In one of my trips, I went over the great moun- 
tains that enclose the high table lands of Puebla, 
and it took about half a day to reach the top of the 
ridge, where the road crosses. The elevation was 
about 9 or 10,000 feet, and the climate very cool, 
requiring two or three blankets at night. After 
descending a little, I came to a great valley, inter- 
sected at rigKtfangles by another large valley., and 
near the intersection wore the ^buildings of a 
great estate, employing about 300 laboring men 




14 

Indian corn was the principal crop, and I think I 
saw more corn at one view, than I have ever seen 
elsewhere. 

This corn was very good indeed, and I shonld 
think, from a view that I had of the field, from the 
side of the mountain, that the corn field in the long 
valley must have been seven or eight miles long, 
and nearly two miles wide, besides the short~valle5 , 
which was richer land, and, I should think, con- 
tained at least 1,000 acres. What can be done 
with all this corn, one may ask. 

The toll-gate keepers at Orizaba report that, on 
an average, 800 mules pass every day in the year. 
The corn raised on the great estate of Esperanza, 
can only furnish a small part of,, the amount required 
fdr these mules, and it is the lowest down the road 
of all the great corn plantations. The manager 
told me that he paid the 300 Indians 37£ cents a 
day for each day's work, and that with this money 
they had to buy food, clothing and everthing for 
themselves and their families. I supposed the 
profits on sales to the Indians must be 100 per cent., 
and then I should call the labor cheap. 

In this valley I saw the plant called maguey, 
from which the Mexican drink cattea pulqut is 
made. The plants are about six feet apart, and 
when about four years old, a flowering stalk begins 




15 

to shoot up, and soon after it gets above the leaves, 
which are eight or nine feet high, it is cut ont about 
one foot above the ground, and a large round hole 
containing about two gallons is scooped out and 
oecomes filled twice a day with a thick, milky fluid, 
that oozes from the enormous leaves. "Barrels are 
placed at proper intervals, to be filled with thejttiew 
thus obtained. At first the pulque is sweet, but 
soou ferments like cider, and makes a very nutritious 
and pleasant drink, but if allowed to ferment too 
much it becomes intoxicating ; and vast quantities 
of it are distilled into rum, greatly to the injury of 
the Indians, who are very fond of strong drink.. 

The plant, while furnishing the pulque, is dying 
all the time, and in five arsix months dies and soon 
decays, and other plants then come on so as to keep 
up the supply. The leaves of a large plant are 
about fifteen inches wide, and seven or eight inches 
thick at the ground, and taper in width and thick 
ness to a point, which is a very stout and very sharp 
spike, that is greatly dreaded by cattle, and this in- 
stinctive dread leads to the use of this plant for 
fencing. Two rows of the maguey plant are set 
out five or six ,ieet apart, and when they are only 
one foot higb^he cattle dread them too much to 
pass over them. 




16 

At an elevation of five thousand feet these plant* 
will grow, but they will not come to such maturity 
as to make pulque until you reach an elevation 01 
six or seven thousand feet On the mountains nine 
or ten thousand feet high, they grow spontaneously, 
but are unproductive. 

The pulque- is much relished in Orizaba, and is 
brought on the backs of mules, in goat skins, and 
§old like cider. 

The vast amount of hauling done on the back? 
of animals in Mexico, is a remarkable feature ol 
the country. 

Pack saddles are fastened on the mules, very se- 
curely, and such large mules as the regular muleteere 
use are loaded with four hundred pounds each, twc 
hundred pounds on each side. The bales of cotton 
sent up from Vera Cruz weigh two hundred pound; 
each, and one bale is put on each side of the mule. 
Four boxes of wine or brandy, one dozen to the 
box, are also put on each side of a mule for a load, 
and other things in proportion. 

I have seen, many a time, one hundred or more 
of these mules in a drove, led by a mare, partly 
white and partly black or red, with or without her 
colt. About two o'clock the. drove stops for the 
day, and thejnare takes her place at the end of the 
line, as direct ■ l&yjjie drivers. The mmles all form 



17 

in line, as soldiers, and the packs are taken off and 
put just opposite the mules, and then the saddles, 
and now when all the mules are stripped, a pop of 
the driver's whip gives the signal to the mare and 
she trots into the river or creek, and while they are 
drinking a long cloth is stretched out for a trough, 
and supported by forks and Jong ropes, with their 
ends pinned to the ground by stout iron pins, and 
this trough is then filled with cut-np wheat or barley 
straw and corn poured all over it When the mules 
have done drinking, the driver's whip i ops the sig- 
nal to the mare and she leads the mules to dinner. 
Two hours before day the mules are fed again, and 
at daybreak they are led to water, and then to their 
places in line, each one opposite his own pack. If 
any one has been careless and taken the wrong place, 
the driver's whip reminds him of his error, and he 
hastens to his proper position. They are then 
saddled and loaded, and the mare, with her little 
tinkling bell, leads the way. 

If a contractor engages to do a certain job of 
masonry, he employs the owner of a drove of don- 
keys to haul the stone, the sand, and the water, and 
all are hauledjon the backs of the donkeys, and in 
many cases it -^better than to haul in ox-carts or 
wagons, for the mountains where the lime and stone 
are found are too steep and rocky for logons, and 




18 

the banks of the rivers or creeks are also too steep 
for any sort of vehicles. 

And even planks are-hauled from the mountains 
on the backs of mules, one end being secured to the 
pack saddles and the other dragging on the ground. 
Large timbers cut and hewn in the mountains are 
dragged down by oxen. 

The great wagon trains, that haul he^vy machin- 
ery, have twenty-two mules each to a wagon, and a 
very large washer is put on each end of each front 
axle. A very strong hook is attached to each 
washer, and when the twenty-two mules cannot 
pull the wagon, a string of twenty mules from the 
second wagon is attached to one axle ; and if the 
forty two mules cannot pull the wagon, another 
string of twenty mules (four abreast, as all are,) is 
attached ; and if they are not enough, more are 
attached, until, sometimes, 122 mules are pulling 
at one wagon. 

1 have seen sixty-two, myself, but as they suc- 
ceeded, the other sixty were not attached through 
the train consisted of twenty-five wagons, of twenty- 
two mules each. The mules are always four abreast, 
except the trains that carry silver, in which they are 
always two abreast, and twelve to "each wagon. * I 
have 6een thifllSgsix of these specie wagons in front 
of my door at once, twelve mules to each, and all 




19 

loaded with nothing but Mexican dollars; and 
escorted by a strong body of French soldiers. 

These French soldiers were quartered near us, in 
both Cordova and Orizaba, and we saw a good 
deal cf them on the road, having met them fre- 
quently; and we heard our countrymen, who had 
known them for years, speak of them, and from all 
I have seen and heard, I regard them as very 
superior troops. In camp they were very quiet and 
well behaved,and we were pleased to have them near 
us ; and their politeness to us, on meeting' them in 
the road, was remarkable, the highest officers salut- 
ing a poor American in his wagon, as if he were an 
officer of distinction. And their courage in battle 
was really marvellous. 

At the fort that overlooks the city of Orizaba, a 
captain greatly distinguishe 1 himself by scaling the 
mountain side, where scarcely a goat could climb, 
and capturing the fort, full of Mexicans, and routing 
a whole army of reserves of about 2,000 men. 

Another captain, holding a station on the rail- 
road, about thirty miles from Vera Cruz, fought 
from sunrise to sunset, till his ammunition was ex- 
hausted and he and every one of his men were 
killed. The dnimmer, an Italian, recovered from 
his seventeen wounds, bur all the sixty^two French- 
men were left dead on the field where thevtbucrht. 



20 

without any sort of protection. The Mexicans lost 
about 400 out of their 3,500 cavalry. 

As the train stopped I got out and looked at the 
graves where they are all buried together, which 
was surrounded by an iron railing and marked by 
a wooden cross, inscribed with date, names of officers 
and number of men who fell in this remarkable en- 
gagement. This inscription I read, but did not 
have time to copy. 

The next day these Mexicans attacked the next 
station, ten miles off, and were repulsed bv a com- 
pany of Nubian Zouaves, who were ready to fight 
to the last, as their comrades had done. 

"While I was in Mexico, the Imperialists and 
Liberals had a fight near Matamoras, and an Ameri- 
can who was in the battle told me that as soon as 
the Imperialists were attacked they went over to 
the Liberals, or surrendered, except the French, who 
consisted of one company, and they cut their way 
out, and the Liberals thought it prudent to let them 
go in peace — and I think that was a wise conclusion. 

But now General Castelneau, Napoleon's envoy, 
came to see Maximilian and Marshal Bazaine, the 
commander of the French troop s,jiidwe soon learned 
that the French troops would return to France ; 
and when wejjB&w them going through Orizaba, t<> 
nix, wtamggan to think that the reign of 




21 

Maximilian was very near it3 end; and when he 
himself arrived, on his way to Europe, as we heard, 
we could doubt no more. I saw him riding out 
daily for a week or two, and thought he would get 
off before we could ; but as all our countrymen were 
preparing to go away, and our principal friends, 
particularly General Hindman and his family, 
urged us to hasten away, and gave all the help they 
r could afford, we started off also. 

We stopped in Cordova the first night, and saw 
General Price and family, and we felt very sorry to 
leave such noble and kind-hearted friends. 

The next morning we left Cordova before day, 
ana a little before sunrise we looked back and saw 
the snow on the summit of Mount Orizaba as deep 
crimson as the clouds in the east. As the sun rose 
the color of the snow faded, just as the clouds faded, 
till the snow assumed its usual dazzling whiteness. 
It was a grand sight. Five hundred acres of crim- 
scn snow more than three miles high ! 

Soon after breakfast we came to Mr. Fink's coffee 
plantation, of one hundred acres. I learned from 
him that the annual yield of coffee is from one 
thousand to twelve hundred pounds an acre, and 
that atth« lowest-estimate, allowing three cents a 
pound for expense of cultivation, packing, husking, 
&c- and thirteen cenU a pound ibr the caeli^price 



22 

at his dorr, there is a clear profit of ten ceDt a 
pound, or one hundred dollars an acre. 

The coffee berry is very much like the black-heart 
cherry, but with scarcely any stem, each berry con- 
taining two grains. The berries are planted whole, 
in ground well worked up, and a scaffold about 
three feet high is made over the bed, and covered 
with large leaves, so as to protect the young plants 
from the sun until they are two to three feet high, 
when they are set out in rows eight feet one way 
snd nine the other, and kept free from bushes, weeds, 
&c, antil they are three or four feet high. They 
are then cut down with a sharp knife, about six 
inches from the ground, and four to five sprouts 
spring up aiound the little stumps, and are allowed 
to grow about five feet high, when the tops are cut 
off to keep the trees from growing too high. 

The next spring these beautiful bushes will be 
covered with very fragrant white flowers that per« 
fume the whole atmosphere, and these are soon fol- 
lowed by green berries, that soon become pink, and 
then deep purple, and then they are ready for 
gathering. They are then dried in the sun, daily, 
until dry enough to put away without danger of 
moulding, and in the following march, when the 
weathe r^fiM erv hot and dry, they are . dried 
thron^My atid beaten in a trong-h -rmtil tlie grain? 




23 

are separated from the husk, and after being win- 
nowed and picked over, they are ready for market. 
This is the Mexican way of preparing the coffee 
berries. 

The Brazilian way is said to be quite different 
There they strip off the berries from the twigs, the 
unripe as well as the ripe, and soak and work them 
up in water until the pulp 3s washed from the grains, 
and then the grains are dried tillready for the bags, 

In some places where the heat is very great, the 
woods are trimmed out, so as to leave only enough 
trees to shade the coffee bushes, and the coffee planta 
are set out so as to have the benefit of the shade. 
This was the case with Mr. Fink's plantation. In 
other places, suitable trees for shade are planted 
amongthe coffee bushes, while in other pi aces, where 
the heat is less, the coffee needs no shade. 

A coffee plantation will bear a fall crop in four 
years from the setting out of the scions, and will 
last twenty or thirty years. I heard an old gentle- 
man say that he knew one, in southern Mexico, that 
is forty years old. 

The chocolate beans are raised from trees, planted 
rn the shade, like the coffee trees: and the profit of 
raising them is said to be greater; and well made 
chocolate is justly considered a great luxt 



24 

A^out five miles before we reached the railroad, 
an axle of our wagon broke, and we had to ask help 
of some French troops, who took my family in then 
wagons, and, with the ntmost kindness and polite 
ness, carried them to the hotel, and tlms saved us 
from spending a night in the mountains, exposed to 
the Liberals, who were only held in check by theii 
fear of the French. 

A three hours' ride on the railroad brought us to 
Yera Cruz, which is, in November, a very pleasant 
place. The houses are generally two stories high, 
and the roofs are flat and covered with a very hard 
mortar, which turns water perfectly. If the street? 
were bridged, one conld walk almost all over the 
city on the tops of the houses. Much work is done 
on the house tops, and chickens and turkies are 
raised as in a yard, and in November and the wintei 
months no place could be so pleasant for sleeping 
as the housetop. 

The porters in Yera Cruz are a remarkable set of 
men. They wear felt hats, with enormous brims 
that reach over their shoulders, and I have seen 
them with three or four hats on at a time, so that 
the brims made a soft padding J gn the shoulder, 
which had to sustain the weigntSof? four hundred 
pound Sj^AHJHMemen told me that he knew a por 
ter to^irry a box ,.of hardware, weighing between 




25 

eleven and eight hundred pounds, and I have.6een 
enough to make me believe it. They are more 
Spanish than Indian. 

After I had been in "Vera Cruz a few days, the 
agent at the depot told me that I would have to 
take away my baggage, as they were clearing out 
the warehouse, to make room for Maximilian's bag- 
gage, which was expected the next day. I then 
felt confident that he would soon leave Mexico, and 
I was very much surprised to learn that he had 
yielded to the entreaties of representatives of the 
priests and property-holders of Mexico, and returned 
to the capital. 

While I was truly sorry to learn his subsequent 
fate, I was not at all surprised. I saw and heard 
enough to satisfy me that he was one of the most 
kind hearted rulers in the world, and that he had 
most fully identified himself with Mexico, and that 
according to his ability he labored for the good of 
Mexico. In "Vera Cruz, Cordova and Orizaba, 
where his authority was supreme, we had better 
order, better laws, more certain justice and much 
lighter taxes than I have any hope of seeing again 
while I live, .tfjjfc. 

I think thaPihe want of politi c al & ability as a 
statesman was the one great want of Maximilian. 
Mirehal Bazaine may have had the abil^jtbut 



26 

Maximilian would not be advised by him. I thhik 
that the Empress Carlotta had the ability ,but though 
she w as the most accomplished princess of Europe, 
and even beloved by Maximilian's enemies,he would 
not take her advice. 

Maximilian was exceedingly fond of horses, and 
I think that if he had loved them enough to confine 
himself to them, and to give her the reins of the 
people, while he held the reins of the horses, it would 
have been a wise distribution of power, and the 
very sal vation of Mexico. 

That the enemies of Maximilian were destitute 
of principle is evident from their opposing the 
claims of General Ortega, a white man and a gen- 
tleman of literary, military and legal merit, and the 
Chief Justice of Mexico, and, as such, the constitu- 
tional President of Mexico until a new election 
should be held. But they trampled on the Mexican 
constitution, and helped a blood-thirsty half- Indian 
to usurp the office constitutionally belonging to the 
honored aud accomplished General Ortega. 

The mines of Mexico are wonderful for silver 
and gold. Three thousand mines have been already 
discovered, but only one hundred rand fifty are 
worked, a njjjy&yth ese produce about $20,000,000 a 
year. 




ST 

A traveler in Mexico ssys that two poor Indian 
brothers lived in a little town in northern Mexico, 
on the borders of a stream, and that one of them 
tried to buy a quart of Indian corn one morning, but 
could not get credit for it. That night there was a 
great rain, and the banks of the stream were over- 
flowed, 80 that the surface of the earth opposite the 
town washed off. The next morning the brothers, 
looking across the swollen stream, saw some pieces 
of silver on the bank, and swam over and picked *p 
a good deal, and laid claim, according to Mexican 
custom, to the mine thus discovered; and Uien they 
had silver and credit enough. 

During that year the mine produced $2S0,000 
and the poor Indians did not know what to do with 
it. They made very little change in their living, 
as to dwelling, clothing or eating, and really had 
no use for so much money; but one of them filled a 
bag with dollars on a feast day, and called the 
people together and scattered the dollars among the 
crowd. It was a very novel amusement and vastly 
entertaining to the people, who must have regarded 
die poor Indian as a most eloquent actor and entitled 
to hearty applause. The Indian himself was greatly 
delighted at the performance of th e p eople, and re- 
peated his original performance -.on. subsequent fes- 
tivals. , jjtf9 
merit of Middle 



\ 



28 

It cannot reasonably be expected, that Mexico 
should flourish, while the Christian Sabbath is so 
little regarded. On Sunday morning, many of the 
people go to the cathedrals and churches, for a little 
while, but nearly all day the stores are open, and 
in the cities, the afternoons are devoted to chicken 
fights, bull fights, and gambling. Even the priests 
are gamblers. One of them frequently passed our 
door in Cordova, on Sunday at three o'clock, going 
to the bull fight, with a fighting chicken under his 
arm, and a bag of dollars in his hand. 

And yet, it was understood that these same priests 
would impose severe penance on any who might be 
known to have read the Bible. 

While we lived in Cordova, one Sunday a little 
before dinner, the son of our landlord stopped at 
our door, and seeing one of our daughters, reading 
in a New Testament, half English and half Spanish, 
asked her what book she was reading. She invited 
him into the room and hanied him the book. After 
he was seated he opened the book at the fourteenth 
chapter of the Gospel of John, "Let not your heart 
be troubled," &c, and read the Spanish with the 
most intense interest. He was too much absorbed to 
notice 1 anjfejdgg around him for pearly an hour, 
whenjijjis taother^eeing him so deeply interested, 
a^e& him what, book he was reading, but he did 




29 

not hear her, till she raised her voice and called out 
"Francisco, Francisco," when he looked towards 
her, and answered. She asked him "What hook 
are you reading?" He said. ; 'It is most beautiful." 
♦'What is it?" she asked. He then turned to the 
title page, and read the name, when she immediately 
said, "You ought not to read that book, for if the 
priest should hear of it, he would impose very heavy 
penance on you." He replied, "I did not know it 
was wrong to read this book, and you never told 
me it was wrong." 

Now, here was a youth of about twenty, who was 
charmed with the first chapter he had ever read in 
the New Testament, while many in our own country 
seem scarcely to value our great privileges. 

On a trip I once made, I bad an Indian driving 
the wagon, and I took out my Testament and read 
the twenty fifth chapter of Matthew to him, in 
Spanish, and at its close, he said it wes "beautiful, 
very beautiful." I then talked to him in Spanish, 
and asked him how the Mexicans felt when 
they died. .He said they were very sad, but bore it 
as well as they could. I asked him if he ever 
knew a Mexicafl||j<Mlie happy, and he said he never 
heard of sucn*||Pniing. I toIddJMtfitiiat, in my 
country, it wasoften the case among' >; r > §9p}e chat 
the dying person was eiceedingly happy, wiple .all 



so 

others in the room were weeping. He was amazed 
at it, and could not understand how it could be. I 
asked him if he was sure that he loved God with 
all his heart, and was sure that God loved him as 
his child, would he be sorry to go to live with God, 
if God should call him. He said, "No." I said, if 
you do not know that God loves you, and feel that 
you love him with all your heart, you will be afraid 
to die. But my people, when they felt that they 
were sinners, and that God was angry with them, 
prayed till they felt that the Holy Spirit had come 
into their hearts, to fill them with joy, and make 
then know that God had pardoned all their sins, for 
the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ, and then they 
loved God, so that they were not afraid to do their 
duty, and were not afraid to die. 

Miguel was astonished at all this ; and this talk 
increased my desire to be useful to the Spanish race, 
winch has sent so many martyrs to the Kingdom of 
Heaven. I had hoped to preach, in Spanish, to tens 
ot thousands of the Mexicans, and to see thousands 
of them converted, and to hear hundreds of happy 
converts shouting, in old fashioned Methodist style, 
the highest praises of our glorioM^edeemer ; but 
these joys Ar e .n ot for me but for some others, who 
shall bear, the glad tidings of the Gospel to the 
pie' of Mexico. 





31 

, The religion of the Bible has never prevailed In 
Mexico, and I cannot think that this country, so 
rich in minerals, so delightful in climate, so grand in 
scenery, with its rich table lands, so elevated and 
healthy, will much longer suffer a "famine of hear- 
ing the words of the Lord." 

Old Spain, as well as New Spain, can now re 
ceive the Gospel freely, and in both countries the 
Bible circulates without authorized opposition; and 
the lands where the Bible and its readers were 
burned for heresy are now receiving the morning 
rays of the Sun of Bighteousness. And who knows, 
but in the coming reign of the Messiah, in Mexico, 
as it was in Jerusalem, "a great company of the 
priests may be obediant to the faith." 

The first steamer that left Yera Cruz for New 
Orleans, after our arrival, charged more than we 
could possibly raise, and when a New Orleans 
steamer unexpectedly came to Yera Cruz, with 
freight, we were unable to procure passage in her, 
without pledging our baggage for our fare. At 
last, the matter was arranged, and we took passage 
in the Alliance, and after a stormy voyage, we en- 
tered the Mississippi just as a furious norther set in, 
and darkened the' heavens over th&^i^L As soon 
as Tie reached New Orleans, I weni'to the office 01 
the Nev? Orleans Christian, Advocate* w^ere I 



S3 



learned that the Louisiana Conference would meet 
in Baton Rouge in about a week, and I deter- 
mined to try to get there. 

I then called on a commission house, to which v ] 

I had a letter from (general Hindman, but the gen- 
tleman was absent from the city, and I could get 
no help towards getting my baggage released. I then 
asked a very accommodating clerk in the house 
if there were any Virginia merchants in the city, 
and I asked to be directed to them if he knew any. 
He kindly went with me to several whose relations ' 
I knew, and also to others whom 1 knew nothing 
of; and they kindly- loaned me about two hundred 
dollars, and I immediately settled with the captain, 
and we went on board a river boat, on our way to 
Baton Rouge. "We had a very pleasant trip, and 
found a very good home, and experienced great 
kindness from our people and preachers during 
the Conference. 

Bishop Payne presided, and very kindly intro- 
duced me to the Conference, as one whom he had 
known for about twenty years. I stated my case 
to the Conference, and asked to have a circuit 
assigned me, as 1 wished, abov^|^Lthin^s, to be < 

engaged nMikft^cthodist Ministry. 

I wgj|eu*, to" the Delhi circuit, which had not 
hAjHi preacher for ye^rjyji&ying "been ruined by 




33 

the war, and repeated overflows of the Mississippi, 
Our traveling expenses from Baton Rouge came to 
$70, and after spending a month on the circuit, aad 
preaching around at the principal appointments, 
the brethren made an effort to raise something for 
my necessities ; and after trying out of the church, 
as well as among the members, they only raised 
$25.36, less than half the traveling expenses, foe 
which one of the brethren had bound himsel£ 

I saw that I could not live there. What should 
I do ? I thought that I might make something by 
lecturing on Mexico, up in Missouri, or other 
places, beginning at Memphis; and I started out, 
hoping to make enough during the winter to sup- 
port me on the circuit the rest of the year. When 
I got to Memphis, I found that no interest was felt 
in Mexico, and the expenses, such as room-rent, 
lights, fuel, taxes, &c, would probably be mor-e 
than the receipts. 

I then thought I would continue my trip, preach- 
ing and soliciting help for my circuit as a mission- 
ary field, as it really was; and leaving some kind 
friends in Memphis, I did myself the great pleasure 
of calling on my venerable friend, and first presid- 
ing elder, Kev. Moses Broek, who gave me my 
license to preach forty-four years ago This was a 
memorable visit. I never can forget it. Butthk 



34 

most remarkable man has, since my visit, beeft 
taken to Lis reward, and it is with the warmest 
emotion that I hope to meet him, with the rest at 
the heroes of the Gospel warfare, in the weary 
pilgrim's home. 

In Jackson, Tenn., I met an old friend, Rev. 
Amos W. Jones, president of the Female College 
at that place, and had some very happy meetings 
with the brethren. They were very kind to me 
there, as also at Brownsville, on the way to St. 
Louis. The thermometer was below zero when I 
reached that city, and I soon found my way to the 
hospitable dwelling of my old friend, Rev. Dr. WV 
A. Smith, where I was most kindly received by all 
the family, who were surprised to find me so much 
out of my latitude. 

For several weeks I attended meetings at the 
Centenary church, of which Dr. Smith was pastor,, 
and enjoyed the services very much. I was in a 
happy frame of mind while in St. Louis. The re- 
membrance of former happy times, and of recent 
dangers and privations, and the considerations of 
present want, and the glorious prospects of eternal 
blessedness so wrought upon me, that it was one 01 
the happiest seasons of my life. 
5 One night I was going to church through one of 
feihe finest streets of the city, and saw on each side 



35 

brown stone mansions with marble steps and costly 
windows, and all the signs 01 wealth, while I was 
shivering with cold because of the threadbare rai- 
ment I wore; and I commenced repeating!: to 
myself : 

" No foot of land do I possess, 
No cottage in this wilderness, 

A poor wayfaring man ; 
I lodge awhile in tents below, 
And gladly wander to and fro, 

Till I ray Canaan gain. 

Nothing on earth I call my own. 
A stranger to the world nnknown, 

I all their goods despise ; 
trample on their whole delight. 
And seek a city out of sight, 

A city in the skies. 

There is my honse and portion fair, 
My treasure and my heart are there, 

And my abiding home; 
For me my elder brethren stay. 
And angels beckon me away, 

And Jesus bids me coma. 

1 come, thy servant, Lord, replies, 
I come to meet thef , in the skies, 

And claim my heavenly rest; 
Now, let the pilgrim's journey end. 
Now, O my Saviour, brother, friend, 

Receive me to thy breast." 

My heart was so transported with joy; at the con 
templation of these heavenly views, that I envied 
■sot the owners of these fin© houses, bat felt titat I 



36 

would not give my interest in that "house not made 
with hands eternal in the heavens," for all the 
things of this earth. 

I continued my trip up the river to Jefferson City 
sad Glasgow, and preached Jn both places, and was 
very kindly received by the brethren. In Glasgow 
I found Bome of my old acquaintances, and felt 
more like I was in Old Virginia than anywhere 
else, and was very liberally assisted. 

,When I returned to St. Louis I found that I 
eould not get enough to support me on my circuit, 
and I tried to get a circuit where I might make out 
the rest of the year, though it might be one 
thousand miles from my family ; but I could find 
none. The brethren in St. Louis, and the other 
places named, have my heartfelt thanks for their 
kindness, and but for their goodness we must have 
suffered very much. 

Having spent about a month in Missouri, I went 
down to New Orleans, and, at the suggestion of 
Dr. Keener, I went to the dedication of the new 
Methodist church in Houston, Texas, and on my 
-.return I was delayed by high water, so as to roiss 
the boat to Delhi. 

This gave me most unexpectedly a spare week 
in New Orleans ; and as there was a great deal of 
93c<^tement on the subject of emigration to Brazil 



Venezuela,, and* British Honduras, I went around 
and made enquiries about all these places. Two 
persons offered to pay my fare to British Honduras, 
and one of them offered me great assistance, if I 
should like the country and determine to settle 
there. When I considered that in a few months 
the supplies I had received 'during my trips would 
be exhausted, and that the flat lands on the Missis- 
sippi were all under water, and that there was a 
very poor chance of support from a circuit now 
more like a lake than a cotton-field, I thought it 
was my duty to accept the offers of my friends, and 
make a trip to British Honduras to look at the 
country. 

Accordingly, I went up to see my family, and 
found the country, with very few exceptions, navi- 
gable for large boats, and after a few days' prepaid 
ation I started to the Mississippi in a little skiff 
made of plank, and after two days' paddling over 
the public road, which we could scarcely touch with 
our paddles, I reached the great river, a distance 
of forty miles, and took a boat for New Orleans. 

After a few more days I started, in the steamer 
Trade Wmd, for British Honduras, about nine 
hundred miles from Kew Orleans. About, twenty 
emigrants were on board, and we had a pleasan' 



trip of about six days, ending in the harbor of 
Belize, the capital of the colony. 

Belize is a pleasant town of about seven thousand 
inhabitants, of whom about three hundred are Eng- 
lish, Scotch, Americans and other white people, and 
the rest are of African, Spanish and Indian raees. 
The African race is much the most numerous, and 
nearly all the common laborers are of that class. 

Some of the houses are very handsome, especially 
the governor's house, which is built of mahogony, 
and the Wesleyan chapel, which is built of brick 
and Mahogany, with pine floors. This was built 
mostly by funds sent from England for the use of 
the Wesleyan missionaries, who have a flourishing 
society and mission school, nearly all of the African 
race. There are two churches served by ministers 
of the Church of England, a Scotch Presbyterian 
church, a Baptist church, and a Roman Catholic 
church, all very well attended. 

Sundays are more rigidly kept in Belize than in 
any other town I ever knew. Nothing but medi- 
cine is sold on Sunday. Even milk is not allowed 
to be sold. ^sim&p 

There are several very large wholesale stores, and 
as the import duty is only about ten percent, goods 
are cheap, especially linen, woolen, arid very light 
summer goods. There is no license charged for 



89 

selling anything, except a license of $200 a year for 
selling intoxicating drinks. There is a revenue or 
excise tax of one cent a pound on sugar made and 
usedrin the colony, and a similar tax of forty-seven- 
and-a half cents a gallon on all rum made and used 
in the colony. 

These are all the taxes I ever heard of in Belize. 
Those who consider a national debt a blessing, and 
heavy .taxes a luxury, would have great complaints 
against British Honduras." 

The houses of Belize look odd for want of chim- 
neys, a3 the weather is so warm that no fires are 
needed, except in the kitchens. 

The markets are very well supplied with fish, 
turtles, lobsters, clams, conchs, &c, of good quality, 
and very cheap. The vegetables and fruits of the 
tropics are very plentiful, though much dearer than 
in ' Mexico, and the butchers' meats cannot be 
praised for quality nor price. 

Soon after reaching Belize, I joined a party of 
Southerners, and made a trip up the Belize river, 
at the mouth of which Belize is situated, in a large 
boat, called a pitpan, with an awning or cover, 
sufficient to shelter six persons from the sun and 
rain. 

The pitpan is dug ont of a large tree, of mahogany 
or Spanish cedar, about forty-eight feet long,, abou 



40 

forty inches wide, and nearly flat on the bottom, and 
about eighteen inches deep in the middle, but get- 
ting more shallow toward each end, where the depth 
k only about, four inches and the width about two 
feet. The timber is trimmed off the bottom to cor- 
respond to the depth of the boat, and thus for about 
four feet from, each end it is out of the water. 

This style of boat is the best for dragging over 
the shoals and for steering rapidly, so as to shun 
the rocks and trees, where the descent is rapid ; for 
the steeriDg is done with paddles at both ends, which 
is the only practicable way in a narrow and swift 
current, and especially a crooked one. < 

vThe first seven miles we had no banks, but 
swamps, and then low banks, liable to overfl.ow ? 
and only good for cocoanuts and mangoes, until we 
had gone twenty miles, when the banks became 
higher and good for pasturage. 

For the next sixty miles the lands improved, till 
they became suitable for corn, sugar, and all tropical 
fruits. After getting about eighty miles above 
Belize, all the lands are very rich, and especially 
suited to sugar, and all tropical products of rich 
limestone soil, and on the hills and mountains 
eoffee can be raised, 

a In all this region the pasturage is very superior, 
and any amount of cattle and hogs could be raised 




41 

J Abont one hundred and forty miles above Belize! 
the northern and southern branches unite, and 
about- three miles above the fork, on the northern 
branch, is the place which I selected for my home. 

All the lands in the regipn, until you go off from 
the rivers to the pine ridges, are exceedingly rich, 
and suited to sugar cane and coffee; the hills and 
mountains to sugar cane. These lands also are well 
suited to indigo, smoking tobacco, rice corn, and 
all tropical fruits and vegetables ; and cotton grows 
very well, but the worms might destroy it- % 

Nearly all this country is covered with small 
mountains and valleys, and well supplied with good 
water by the rivers and creeks. 

The low grounds, where vegetation is very luxu- 
riant, are very much annoyed by mosquitoes and 
other flies, but if the space of twenty or thirty 
acres, on some high land or hill, is well cleared and 
kept free of everything except fruit trees and short 
grass, the wind will keep all such annoyances away, 
and make your home very pleasant. 

From sunset to sunrise the climate is most delight- 
ful, and towards day cool enough for a blanket, and 
always cool enough, for thin covering, and for a 
hearty appetite as soon as you get up in the 
morning. 



43 

From all I conld see and hear, I was satisfied 
that this region was very healthy, and it wouid be 
a very pleasant home for me if we could have 
enongh society; and with this view I returned to 
Belize, and made arrangements with Governor 
Austin and other parties to furnish land oh long 
credit and at low rates to me' and as many of my 
countrymen as might settle about me. 

By the next steamer I returned to New Orleans, 
and wrote a piece for the New Orleans Crescent, 
detailing the observations I had made and offering 
to answer such questions as might be propounded 
by persons feeling an interest in British Honduras. 
[ immediately wrote to my family to prepare to 
come down to New Orleans, that we might-go out 
to Honduras as soon as we could make the necessary 
arrangements. 

The interest in Honduras became so great that it 
was called the "Honduras fever," and "Honduras 
on the brain." About two hundred letters were 
written to me and duly answered, and many of the 
writers said most positively that they would go to 
Honduras as soon as they conld sell their cotton and 
wind up their affairs, and several asked me to select 
their places near my own. Under) these circum- 
Btanees, L fully expected to have plenty of neighbors 
for th> suptjort of a school and for religious and 



43 

eocial privileges, and by the terms of my contract 
with the proprietors of the land I should have been 
remunerated for all the" land I should have settled 
up for them, but not at the expense of my country- 
men. 

When my family arri ved in New Orleans, I waa 
negotiating for passage on a sailing vessel, as being 
much cheaper than the fare on the steamer, and wfi 
were detained two weeks, during which we enjoyed 
the hospitality of a kind friend. The first vessel I 
had engaged disappointed us, after taking some of 
our freight on board ; and it .was well for us, as she 
had a terrible trip of it. 

The next one was a very small schooner, of only 
2i| tons, and after we had put our freight and bag- 
gage on board, and she was ready to sail, the custom 
house officers prohibited the captain from carrying 
passengers, as the vessel was too small. But we had 
already put our things on board, and paid a part of 
the fare. After some consultation, the captain told 
me to take my family ten miles down the river, and 
have a light on the bank, till he should drop down 
the river and take us on, about nine o'clock at 
night. 

According!' to-" this arrangement, we left New 
Orleans in.' an omnibus, at about four -o'clock, on 
our way to British Honduras, and stopped: on the 



MA. 

bank of the river, and at dark made a light and 
waited for the schooner. About nine o'clock we 
saw her coming, and soon she came to the shore 
with a pretty hard thump, which, however, did no 
harm to the schooner, but stirred up a mighty 
quarrel between the captain and the owner — the 
latter having given the order which produced the 
confusion. The owner had hired the captain, and 
had come only as a common sailor, and had no right 
to give an order. Both were drinky, and the quar- 
rel soon came to blows, and the powerful fist of the 
owner soon bruised the eyes of the captain and 
knocked out one of his teeth, which he never could 
find. 

The captain then took the vessel's papers and 
jumped on shore, swearing that he would return to 
New Orleans that night. The owner then cooled 
down, and begged the captain to go on to Honduras, 
but he vowed that he would not, and soon he was 
lost in tin' darkness. We wondered how this matter 
would end, and the cook and some others went to 
look for the captain, but having failed to find him, 
we returned to the schooner and fought mosquitoes 
till day, when the captain appeared; and told the 
owner,. that on our account he would go on. The 
owner made many acknowledgments and promises of 
«ood behaviour, and we started along down the river. 



45 

The captain still feared that we might be stopped 
at the forts at the mouth of the river, and taken 
back to New Orleans. But we passed out into the 
Gulf safely, but passed into the midst of a great 
storm, which treated our little schooner as a mere 
plaything — like a cork upon the waters. It was a 
serious time, and our vessel was in bad trim, having 
a deck load of plank, piled up so high as to be very 
much in the way. The captain 6aid this plank 
must be thrown overboard, and the beautiful flood- 
ing plank was soon floating in the Gulf, 'ill there 
was a string of it a mile long, I suppose. 

But the storm still continued, the waves pouring 
down the hatches, at times — for we could not keep 
them closed all the time, and the pumps going. My 
wife, though she had been a great deal at sea, and 
once had been for fifty days out of sight of land, 
said she thought we would never see land again. 

But we were all calm, and I expressed the hope 
that our prayers would be answered, and that we 
should escape this danger. I felt no fear myself 
except for my family. I enjoyed the presence of 
my Saviour, and felt that heaven iB as near the 
Gulf of Mexico as any other place. The noise of 
the roaring winds, and the plashing of the waves, 
would have drowned the words' 0/ prayer, if we 
,oould have assembled in one place. So we had to 



46 

pray in our hearts, and hold on to^ anything suitable 
to keep from rolling about. 

After about two days, the storm subsided; and 
now we had another trouble. There was no quad- 
rant, sextant, nor chronometer on board, and how 
could we navigate, with nothing but the compass ? 
None on board but myself ha.d ever-been to Belize, 
and seen the headlands on the way, and the cap- 
tain thought the only safe chance was to guess at 
the direction of Cuba, whose western headlands 
several of us had seen, and to keep far enough 
north to avoid getting on shoals in the night, and 
when^we could see the mountains of Cuba, to steer 
south, keeping the island to +he east of us. 

When the day dawned, the mountains were in 
fell view, and we steered south, about six miles from 
the land, till to. our astonishment we found that we 
were sailing over rocks, not four feet from our keel. 
And the knowledge that the owner of the vessel 
was a desperate pirate (and probably another one 
on board also), did not increase the comfort of our 
reflections. 

But our captain immediately took the helm, and 
bore off from the land; and after about half an 
hour we were relieved of the painful sight of rocks 
ne&cthe keel of our vessel.- 



4? 

About nine o'clock at night, we passed the light 
of Cape San Antonio, and knew we were in the 
Garribean Sea. The sea ran high, but the wind 
was steady, and sometimes for an hour at a time all 
hands went to sleep, having fastened the tiPer with 
a rope ; and thus our little vessel navigated herself. 
The current from the Garribean Sea into the Gulf 
of Mexico is always strong, and sometimes more so 
than at others, according to the strength of the trade 
winds. "We found it very strong, and made but little 
headway against it ; but after a voyage of eleven 
days, we started to go through the Keys into Belize, 
without a pilot, and got aground on some soft mud 5 
but as our vessel was so small, we pushed off witk 
poles, and soon came up with some fishermen, who 
were nearly done fishing, and for a bucket of ship 
biscuit took us into the harbor. 

The next day I rented a house and moved into 
it, and commenced fixing up a little steamboat, with 
the assistance of 1he governor and merchants of 
Belize, and some of o»r countrymen ; but not 
having the means necessary to make it a success, 
though I took it nearly one hundred miles up the 
river twice, it did inot answer the purpose, and I 
took my family up to the place I had. chosen in a 
pitpan, with a cover. lifcv 




The current was so strong that it took us twelve 
days to make the trip, and we had rain every day 
bat one. 

We fonDd plenty of honses, such as they were, at 
enr new home : it having been settled by an enter- 
prising Spaniard, who traded with the Indians, and 
made ram, until his conduct excited the suspicions 
©f the government ; and he then fled to Guatemala, 
where he was detected in a conspiracy to rob and 
murder, and, to prevent being executed, hung 
himself. 

■The houses, like all others in that wilderness- 
eountry, are made of posts, or forks, supporting a 
frame of poles, well tied together with vines (found 
abundantly in the woods), and covered with a very 
thick roof of bay leaves (like the palmetto leaves, 
but a great deal larger and affording perfect protec- 
tion against the sun and rain). The walls are made 
of poles, two or three inches in diameter, tied to 
horizontal poles, which are tied to the posts, and 
the spaces of about three-fourth of an inch left 
between the poles for the tie-vines, give light 
enough, without windows. The floors are of good 
solid earth, and suit very well for fire, in rainy 
weather, wherever you choose to make it. 
■z But floors of this sort afford a nursery and dwell- 
ing place &r countless numbers of fleas, as we 



49 
j 

found to our great annoyance. Neither cold nor 

hot water would destroy them, nor anything else 
we tried ; bnt after we had had four sheep staying 
in the house, every night for a week, we found that 
these nimble insects had more than their match, 
when they got tangled in the greasy wool ; and our 
regard for sheep has greatly increased. Ihose who 
have dogs and hogs in warm climates, ought to have 
sheep, as an antidote for fleas. 

' Another singular insect annoyance, in Honduras 
as well as Mexico, is the negua, which is very much 
like a small flea. It burrows under the toe-naila 
and finger nails, causing great itching; and in 
about twenty -four hours a little sack is formed, fall 
of eggs, and if then picked out with a needle the itch- 
ing soon ceases and the little sore is soon cured; but 
if neglected for several days, it makes a very disa- 
greeable sore, especially in young children, who are 
very restless while you are picking out the sack; 
and little children are more troubled than grown 
people, because their feet are more tender and 
generally more exposed. *~ 

^ Another annoyance is the beef worm, which 
©omes from an egg deposited in the flesh by a kind 
of fly, and which sometimes grows to be nearly an 
inch long, and is much larger at the bottom than at 
the top. The remedy is to put some fig juice or 



50 

other mucilage, on a small piece of leaf tobacco, 
and stick it on the place for some half hour, to 
deaden the worm, and then squeeze till the worm 
pops out. It is very hard to squeeze it out other- 
wise, and if it is allowed to grow large it is very 
painful. 

Another annoyance is the army ant. These 
little insects are not like the fire ants, stinging like 
fire, but formidable for their prodigious numbers. 
They seem to have engineers among them, who lay 
off the track for their march generally about twenty 
feet wide, and within which they keep. Their 
numbers are such that they completely cover the 
ground and everything else in their track. They 
will pass through one room and frequently there 
will.b.e none in the other room, nor in the other 
corner of the same room. They go up on every- 
thing on their track, all over the top of the house, 
and among the leaves that cover it, and then the 
Bound is exactly like the sound of snowballing 
on leaves; and every lizard and other living thing 
4n the roof hurries away. They go down into every 
rat hole and snake hole, and every snake and rat 
and mouse that is old enough to escape dashes off 1 . 
The very young ones ave stung to death. And the 
natives say, therefore the snakes are so,: scarce. 



51 

In about four hours the whole army has passed 
by, and done no harm, but has been a great "terror 
to the evil doers" that live in holes; and has set an 
example of honesty that is not often followed by 
so called Christian armies. 

There is another hind of ant, very large and 
numerous, that live on leaves, and have large cities 
under ground, the excavations from which are piled 
up into a large mound overhead, about four feet 
high and twenty feet across. The tracks to and 
from the mound are about four inches wide, and 
beaten down hard and smooth; and in the tracks 
near the mound the ant eater (something like the 
raccoon) makes a hole, and, as the ants tumble in, 
helps himself with great apparent relish. 

The spotted tiger and the brown tiger are seen 
in the country, and frequently kill oxen and hog-, 
but very rarely attack men. Foxes sometimes, and 
opossums frequently, destroy fowls, if they are not 
properly secured. Alligators are found in all the 
rivers, but rai ely do any harm. 

Game is very abundant. Deer, antelopes, wild 
hogs, and various other quadrupeds, are frequently 
shot by good hunters. There is a very large bird, 
called currasOw,. about the size of a, turkey, that i3 
equal to the turkey in flavor and far more beauitful, 
and when domesticated is very tame, and is at the 



52 

head of the feathered tribe. I had a beautiful pair 
of them, that I brought as far as New Orleans, but 
I was afraid I would lose them if I attempted to 
bring them to Virginia in the winter. 

There are also wild turkeys, and some other large 
birds; and parrots in flocks of one hundred or more; 
maccaws, or parrot hawk?, as some call them, mostly 
red, but partly blue, and under the body yellow, and 
all three colors of the very brightest hue. Their 
tails are about two feet long, and they are the most 
brilliant birds I ever saw, but their voices are as 
harsh as their plumage is showy. They are taught 
to speak like parrots, but are not as safely handled. 

The most remarkable animal I saw in Honduras 
is the tapir, or mountain cow. It is about as much 
like a hog as a cow, and weighs, generally, about 
four hundred pounds, and the meat is very good. 
It spends a good deal of time in the water, with 
only its head sticking out. It has a very tough 
skin, and makes it way through thorny bamboo 
thickets without regarding them, and goes down the 
6teepest banks of the river. Its upper lip, like the 
proboscis of the elephant, can be extended so as t© 
take hold of a tree, or a dog; arid the hoofs of its 
forefeet n re very formidable, when it is protecting 
its call if it. iiiids a carhp lire in the woods, they 



58 

Bay it -will scatter it with its forefeet and put it out, 
while all the rest of the animals are afraid of fire. 

We frequently heard the cries of baboons near 
our house, though 1 did not often see them. I saw 
one that the natives had killed to eat, and they said 
it was very good; but it looked too much like a 
child for my use. 

But I never refused to eat the iguana, a very 
large kind of lizard, living entirely on leaves, 
especially sweet potato leaves, and about four feet 
long. Oue is equal to a hen in quantity and 
quality. 

Soon after reaching our homes we employed some 
Indians to clear away the bushes around the house, 
and to cat down the woods for a cornfield, and to 
fix up our houses, as several had requested me to 
do, and I went down to Belize to meet those whom 
1 expected. But I found none of them. And this 
I did four times, when I heard- that soou atter I 
left JSTew Orleans the army worm had been more 
destructive than ever before, and that some large 
fields did not produce a single bale of cotton. 
<q 1 planted a crop of corn, and a very large crop 
of plantains and -bananas, so that we should not fail 
to have enough to .supply all who. might come. 
But those who had lost their cotton coald not come, 
and no family ever came but that of my son-in-law. 



He got a job of surveying, and divided his wages 
with us, and instead of sending the money he 
bought us, in Belize, soap, cotton cloth, powder and 
shot, and such other things as the Indians needed ; 
and I took some of the youngest children with me 
and went to the Indian towns and sold these thing, 
and traded for hogs, fowls, and other things. 

One of these towns, where there were as many 
Africans as Indians, was about four miles off, and 
contained about forty houses; the next was eight 
miles, with about seventy houses ; the next, ten 
miles, with about thirty houses ; and the last on 
that side of us, two miles further, with about twenty 
houses. These last three were almost entirely 
Indians, speaking the Maya language, the- principal 
language of Central America, and very few among 
them could speak Spanish. On the other side of 
us, near the border of Yucatan, was another town, 
twenty-four miles off, of about eighty houses. 

? "When ready for a trip, I would take one or two- 
of the children, each of us carrying a part of the 
goods in a bag made of twine, like a seine, and 
fastened to a band two inches wide, which came - 
over the shoulders and was supported by the .fore- 
head, so that the weight rested on the backhand 
die bearer walked something like the Grecian bend 
of the ladies. "* We took with us a pair of blankets, 



55 

and some coffee and provisions, and some matches 
in a quinine bottle, that they should not get wet, 
and some shavings of fat pine, to start a fire 
quickly. 

"When night overtook us near some watercourse, 
we used, whatever shelters we found convenient, or 
did without, according 1 to circumstances ; and after 
cooking and eating our supper and kneeling in 
family prayers together, and mending the fire, we 
swung our hammock to trees, or lay down on the 
blanket, and slept till about day, when we com- 
menced our preparation for the day's journey, 
taking only a little coffee and a little piece of bread 
or sweet potato, until our regular hour of breakfast, 
which was nine o'clock. 

Having sold what we could, and traded for some 
hogs and fowls, we would start late in the afternoon, 
60 as not to drive the hogs more than two or three 
miles before night, that they might not be too much 
fatigued. We drove the hogs by tying one hind 
foot, and using a long switch very gently. At first 
it was very hard to get them started out of town 
and we had to drag them around several times, but 
after we got started they did better, and the next 
morning we generally had but little trouble, unless 
we came to logs in the path too large for them to 
jump over. When they came to a fork in the 



56 

narrow path, in the woods, we kept the rope tight, 
and as soon as we saw any disposition in the hog to 
take the wrong path we held him till he turned 
his* head towards the proper route, and then the 
rope was slacked and he went ahead right 

It was a very troublesome business at first, but 
we soon became trained to it, and learned it very 
well. The old hogs sometimes fought, and it was 
dangerous to drive them. I took charge of such 
myself, and as I always carried with me (as all the 
men in the country do) a stout knife, or sword, 
about thirty inches long, called a machete, I was 
prepared to defend myself. 

The mode of scalding the hog3 so as to get off 
their hair, was to wet one side with water, and 
holding a blazing bay leaf over the wet hair till it 
would slip easily, to scrape clean with knives, and 
then to turn the hog over and scrape the other side 
in the same way % I then assisted the children to 
hang the hog up, and they preferred to do all the 
rest. I did not like the sight of flowing blood, and 
the children only asked me to hold the hog till one 
could stick him, and then they claimed the right tc 
do all the rest, except the hanging up. The bone* 
were all cut out, and the rest of the meat could 
then be preserved by salt and smoke, however warn: 
the weather. Mr 



57 

When we brought fowls, they were brought in 
two-story baskets, on our backs. The loads we 
carried were generally about one-third of om 
respective weights, but I have carried more thaD 
half my weight — about twenty-five fowls, the most 
of them grown hens. 

Fowls are frequently carried in rolls, .each fowl 
rolled up in a large leaf, and tied like a roll of 
paper. .1 once saw five turkeys, rolled up and 
fastened to an upright board about ten inches wide, 
heads reversed, carried on a man's back. 1 wished 
then that I was a painter for a while, that I might 
sketch off that turkey ehow. 

In those trips we were frequently caught in the 
rain ; and one night especially, we were without 
shelter and it rained for hours, but still the children 
< slept soundly. As soon as light appeared, we 
started for home with the hogs, and felt no injury 
from our drenchiDg. 

The Indians are a very inoffensive race. Thej 
have no organization, except that in each town thej 
elect an officer called the alcalde, who dispenses 
justice and- checks disorder. Generally they are 
very honest. I have known a dozen of them 1< 
spend the night where we had a whole washing of 
* clothes hanging up, and they did not take a singL 
piece ; and indeed I never knew an Indian to stea 



58 

my clothes. Even in the town of Belize, we left 
slothes hanging all night out of doors, exposed to 
'he street (for we had no enclosure around the 
pard), and nothing was ever stolen. They are a 
small and weak race of people, but do as much for 
the money paid them as the generality of laborers. 
They receive twenty-five cents a day and rations, 
ar $5 a month and rations, which consists of about 
half pound of pork and seven plantains, or an 
equivalent of corn, a day ; while the Africans, or 
Creoles as they are called, get $8 or $9 a month, 
and require flour for a part of their rations. 

sThe Indians are very expert in the use of the 
machete, which they use for cutting grass and 
bushes, and even small trees, using the axe only for 
large trees. They dig post-holes for building houses 
with the machete, and I saw' two of them dig a 
grave with machetes, using turtle shells to thro^ 
Dirt the earth. They use no plow, nor hoe, nor 
spade, in working or planting their crops. Corn 
land is prepared by cutting down the bushes and 
trees in the winter, and just before the rainy season 
•ets in, about June 1st. Fires are kindled about 
aoon, when the dew is all off, and the wind quite 
aigh, over this patch of leaves and bushes, and in a 
few minutes the flames reach to the tops of the 
ii&rrOimaiBg trees; and the bursting of the sap from 



the thick stems sounds like the discharges of small 
arms in battle, and can be heard for miles. 

"When the burning is o\ or and the 'ioals are ex- 
tinguished, but little is left, -escept ihn ttumps and 
the large logs; and the Indian swings a '•ittle b?g 
of reed-corn at hie side, and takes a conee-iien'; 
pole, trimmed like a cnisel, arid throws it into the 
ground like a javelin, and then stands it up and 
drops four or five grains of corn under its heel, and 
draws it out. If the earth falls on tne corn, and 
covers it sufficiently, no more is done; but if neces- 
sary the corn is covered up with the foot. 

The rows of corn are about five feet apart, and 
we would consider that it was planted too thick; 
but they prefer to have it thick, some say, to prevent 
suckers from shooting up. The corn grows very 
fast, and if the bushes were chopped down, when 
it is a month old, it would be an advantage; but it 
is rareiy done, and generally there is no cultivation 
whatever, and yet there is a heavy crop made. 
When the corn is nearly three months old, it is 
sustomary to bend down every stalk, jusfc below the 
ears, to prevent the corn from falling down in the 
wind and rain, as well as to make.it more difficult 
for the raccoons to get at it. As soon as it is hard 
ihe Indians carry it home on their backs, and nse 
tvhat they need for tibensgslves, ard feed the rest -to 



their hogs and fowls, which are the only things that 
bring them money. 

■ After the first crcp is < alien from the land, it is 
mnch more difficult to clean it up for another year's 
crop than it is to clear the same quantity of land 
by burmng, and 2 -lew cornfield is made the next 
year, and the same field is not used again until 
there is enough vegetation on it to make a good 
burning. Yams, sweet potatoes, cymblins, and 
pumpkins, are planted in the cornfield, and yield 
abundantly. 

The cahoon palm is a great tree. Its leaves some- 
times reach the enormous length of forty- five or 
fifty teet, and are nearly ten feet wide, and one of 
them is nearly as much as a man can lift. The 
stems are larger than a man's leg, and are used for 
making fences to keep out oxen, as well as for 
walling-in houses. The tree bears annually about 
three bunches of nuts, nearly a barrel on each bush, 
and the nuts are about the size of a hen's egg, and 
requiring an axe to grind them. The kernel is 
about one inch and a half in length, of an oval 
shape, and tastes almost exactly like cocoanut, onlj 
it is tougher and drier. It makes a very fine oiL 
nearly equal to olive oil. 

The India rubber tree is very beautiful ; witl 
lafge, round leaves. When the bark is cut, fih< 



r 



■ 

.;';.> '■. 



61 

juice spurta" out as white as milk, but soon turns 
black. It is collected from the tree while standing, 
but frequently the tree is cut down, and ail the 
juice is collected in a few days, from the different 
cuts made along the body. The juice is then poured 
into a trough, and a strong solution of alum mixed 
with it, to curdle it, and the next day it is poured. 
on boards, slightly inclined, that the whey may run 
off. The curd is then beaten, and trampled, and 
formed into large cakes, and dried on a scaffold for 
several days, until quite hard, when it is ready for 
market. 

There is not much of it in the region where I 
was, but it is found in great abundance farther 
south, on the coast of the Spanish Honduras, and 
still farther south to the river Amazon. The trade 
in India rubber turns out as much money, and as 
much sickness and death, as any trade I have 
heard o£ 

The mahogany business was formerly very exten- 
sive on the Belize river ; but nearly all the works 
there have been abandoned, as also to a great extent 
in other parts of- the colony, and sugar-making is 
taking the place of it. There are several reasons 
«nr this*. It is much more expensive to get the 
»«maiuing mahogany, which is distant from the 
iiTers, than it was to get that which was near the 



water ; and there are places in Mexico and Spanish 
Honduras where it is much more accessible than in 
British Honduras ; and then the price of it is much 
less than formerly. 

Cabinet-makers have substituted other kinds of 
wood in its place to a great extent ; and the British 
government, which formerly used it very extensively 
for boarding u,p its ships of war, because it does not 
splinter as other kinds of wood and kill men when 
balls are shot through it, has a great deal of it on 
hand, and has no use for it in iron ships, which are 
now the fashion. 

It was a great business once, and employed a very 
great capital, and thousands of laborers. -At all 
suitable places on the rivers, where the banks were 
high, houses were hv ilt, a large ox pen was con- 
structed, and all around the houses a large clearing 
was made for pasturage. Wide, good roads were 
made, and very powerful trucks, with solid wooden 
wheels, about two and a half feet in diameter and 
nearly a foot thick, were furnished with seven pairs 
of large oxen to each truck. 
- Large quantities of fat pine wcsd were collected 
for torches, as it was too hot for ."the i oxen to haul in 
the heat of the day. The hunters, found the trees, 
and the -cutters.. opened.- the way for the trucks ; thb 
*rse& wer&^ent dowii and squared, some of them 



. . - . ' 



63 

four or five feet square;' and, as suon as the dry 
weather had hardened the roads, all was excite- 
ment. The grass cutters, two to each team, climbed 
the bread-nut trees, and broke off the twigs, full of 
very thick mucilaginous leaves, and sometimes 
gathered one hundred and fifty bundles of thii 
superior fodder from a single tree, and brought 
them generally in boats up or down the river. The 
oxen devoured their fodder, which is sufficient to 
keep horses or oxen fat while at work without any- 
thing else. The oxen, preceded by the torch- 
bearers, hauled the great timbers to the bank, to be 
tumbled into the river for passage to Belize by the 
/ next flood. The experienced captains and their 
associates kept everything busy among the seventy 
men who composed the gang, until the first heavy 
rain wound up the hauling business for the year by 
:, turning the roads into mud. 

Each log was branded, and when the flood carried 
them down the river they were caught by an enor- 
mous chain stretched across the river, twenty miles 
'■■.,' above Belize, which is about the head of tide water, 
and when they were let through this boom, as it is 
t> called, they were rafted together, ano! floated down 

to Belize, where they were drawn up on the yards 
and nicely hewn over, and then floated to the ship 
and stored in the hold, all the vacant places being 



64 

filled up with cocoanuts in the husk.* Very large 
profits were formerly made by this trade, but very 
little is made now. r 

& Logwood and fustic, for dyeing purposes, are ale© 
exported, and I think a factory for preparing extract 
Df logwood would be one of the most profitable in- 
vestments that could be made in the colony. ' 

Cocoanuts are raised on the sandy beaches, all 
along the coast, and about two hundred nuts are 
obtained annually from each tree. You see them 
of all sizes on the trees at the same time, from the 
bloom to the fu.il grown nut, and they fall when 
they are ripe. They are used for feeding hogs and 
Cowls, and for making oil, as well as for eating. 

As no settlers came to our neighborhood, and the 
surveying had ceased, our circumstances became 
9-ery straitened, and we suffered much for want of 
men fare as was required, especially for want of 
flour and butcher's meat. We had not the means 
to buy a cow, and we had to live mostly on hog 
meat and corn bread, and' the vegetables and fruits 
of the country. But we needed variety of food, and 
we could not have our health and strength, for want 
of suitable diet. We had chilis and fevers, and 
frequently we had no quinine or other medicines. 
But I am>satisfied that our sickness was owing 
much more to the diet and ^exposure and fatigue, 



_ ■ ; ~ _ _ 



65 

than to the climate, and that if we had had tho 
means and suitable society we should have been 
healthy and happy, and in five years, when coffee 
trees were bearing, we should have been vory 
prosperous. ■-.•"-- 

But after having been two years in the wilder- 
ness, fifty miles from the nearest white family, with 
no prospect of society, I began to think about trying 
to return to Virginia. My brother had written to 
me from Richmond, urging me to return, and 
quoting some kind messages of my friends; and I 
wrote to him that if I could get the means I should 
like to return and enter the Conference, at its 
pession in Richmond, November 10th, 1S69. 

After writing this letter, I reviewed our life in 
Honduras, with feelings of lively gratitude for the 
deliverancies from danger, and especially for the 
preservation of our little son, when he was lost and 
spent the night in the thick forest, and again when 
he was washed out of a boat in the river, by the 
violence of the current, which washed the ; boat 
under water, and under some limb3 and logs that 
held it out of sight, so firmly that about ten Indians 
were required to get it out, and kept under till hft 
was nearly drowucd. We had not as much as ft 
dollar to pay our way down to Belize, and the boat- 
man chatged us $15, but consented to take ou* old 



66 

chairs, tables, and 8ome other things for mir fiiro 
1 concluded- to go to Belize, and trust to tho Provi- 
dence of God for our' return to Virginia. '.When 
we got to Belize, a kind gentleman loaned ue the 
use of a new house, which was very convenient ; 
and I sold a piece of India rubber belt and a few 
fowls, and got a few dollars to keep house on. 

But no letter had come trom Richmond, because 
the steamer Trade- Wind had been lost in tho Gulf, 
with all ttie mails, soon after leaving New Orleans; 
and we had to wait about six weeks, till a new 
6teamer was put on tho line; and on the 1 lth of 
November I received a letter, in which a kind friend 
authorized me to draw on him in Richmond for 
$100, to pay my way to Richmond, while my family 
conld remain in Belize, two thousand miles off, till 
I could get assistance to send for them. By return 
steamer I came to New Orleans, and sent my family 
a little money, but a kind merchant in Belize learn- 
ing how little it Was, gave them fifty dollars in 
silver, which is the currency of the country. As 
soon as I g^t to Wythe ville, in Virginia, I found 
the stationed preacher, whom 1 had baptized in his 
infancy, thirty years ago, and spent a very pleasant 
time with him and the brethren, and I preachud at 
night and received material aid very liberally. - 



67 

In Lynchburg, Richmond, Petersburg, Norfolk, 
Portsmouth and Suffolk I met many old acquaint- 
ances and friends, who kindly helped me,'60 that I 
Bent on the means to pay the fare of my family 
from Belize to New Orleans, where they kept house 
as economically as possible at a place I had provided 
for them. 

But then it was necessary to provide for their 
living in New Orleans, and to procuro their thick 
winter clothing, without which it would be danger- 
ous to come to Yirginia in tho winter, after so long 
a residence in a hot climate; and the fare by. 
6teamer from New Orleans to Baltimore, tho 
cheapest and most pleasant route, was another 
considerable item. I went to Baltimore to see 
about the matter, and' there and in Alexandria 
received some help; and then I went to Mecklen- 
burg, Virginia, among my old friends, to whom .1 
preached in '3S and '39, and" where, but for their 
poverty, I could hnve obtained all 1 needed in a 
low days. 

The agent of the. steamer in New Orleans was so 
kind as to wait for the faro till I should be able 
to send it ; and my family, escorted by an American 
friend, came on the steamship Cuba, in February; 
and I met them in Baltimore and took them to 
Charlottesville, to the house of a friend, whose 



(8 

kindness has furnished more than half the expense 
of our return to Virginia ; and may this friend, and 
the other who paid my passage, and all others who 
have helped us, be abundantly rewarded by the 
Father ot mercies. ......' 

After nearly two weeks spent in the very pleasant 
family of our friend, we came to Petersburg, whero 
we thought it best to live on account of the schools 
for the children and the cheapness of house rent 
After a search of some days 1 found a suitable 
house and rented it ; but we had no furniture, and 
only three dollars to start on. But the kindness 
of friends again appeared, for one loaned us a bed ; 
and another, a bedstead ; and another, another bed ; 
and another, a bedstead ; another, chairs ; another, 
tables; another gave us a cooking 6to/e; another 
a load of wood ; — so we commenced housekeeping, 
and before the three dollars had quite gone, a friend 
whom I had not seen for thirty years came to see 
us, and gave me $o in gold. Before my family 
arrived I had tried to get some ministerial work, 
and had made enquiries in four presiding elders' 
districts, but 1 could hear of none ; and my friends 
Hummer and Laurens, general agents of the St. 
Louis* Mutual Life Insurance Co., had given^me 
work with them, and promised me some assistance 
in advance. Belore I had used this last $5, this 



69 

help came; and I started on a trip to Gatesville, 
Edenton, Elizabeth City and other places, where the 
people were generally too hard run to insure their 
lives, until the next crop shall come in. As soon 
as I discovered this, I determined to operate as an 
evangelist or missionary, preaching among my 
friends as much as my circumstances will allow, 
and depending upon their help, until I can find 
some ministerial work that will be suitable to my 
condition. When that will be I cannot now see. 
I am in debt for advances I have received from 
several friends ,- for some house rent, and several 
months' schooling of my children. I have no 
furniture worth naming ; our supply of clothing is 
very limited, and what I wear is not worth giving 
away, having done good service before it was given 
to me. I have no horse, no watch, nor even the 
means of moving our things to another part of the 
town, much less to a circuit. But on the other 
hand, we have reason to be thankful to our 
Heavenly Father, that we- have had a iull average 
of the world's comforts, and no deaths, and but a 
little sickness in my immediate family, for twenty 
years ; and considering the benefits of our observa- 
tions and experiences in foreign lands, especially to 
the children, we do not regret our course for the 
last four years. 1 have never had a thought of 



regret all this time. I have prayerfully tried to 
find out what was my duty. 1 preached wherever 
I could, in Belize as well as Mexico; I distributed 
tracts, where I could find men who could read 
them, and exhorted them to serve their God, and to 
meet me in Heaven, which some of them, with 
tears, promised me they would do. 

The most pleasing employment I could have on 
earth, would bo laboring on a circuit with twenty- 
four appointments in four weeks, as Mecklenburg 
circuit was in 1838,- and seeing such times as we 
had that year. 

In conclusion, T earnestly pray that the wiiter 
of this little book, and all its readers, may so live 
that we all may have "an abundant entrance ad- 
ministered unto us into the even asting kingdo'm of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen." 



This book is due at the WALTER R. DAVIS LIBRARY on 
the last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold, it may 
be renewed by bringing it to the library. 



DATE 
DUE 



HQVfr* 20Jif 



Form No 513. 
Rev. 1/84 



DATE 
DUE